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Shekel



We live with coins and paper money but before about 600 BC, coins did not exist. Instead, a weight standard existed similar to the Gold Standard the world used up to the 20th century.

Most weigh stones during the Iron age (1100-587 BC) were smooth polish dome-shaped limestone with flat bottoms.

"Until 1998, only 211 of the inscribed Judaean weights had been found in archaeological excavations; more than half came from Jerusalem and its surroundings (76), Lachish (25), and Arad (15)." Many non-inscribed weights have also been discovered and some of them show markings in ink or paint. Thus it is possible that most of the un­inscribed Judaean limestone weights were once labeled by this meth­od, both less expensive and less permanent than engraving upon the stone." (Hendin, p74)

Here is a 2 shekel weigh stone:



A set of 5 rare inscribed Hebrew, Judean weigh stones:
8 Shekels (91.2grams)
1 Shekel (11.4 grams)
1 Nezef (9.12 grams)
1 Pym (7.6 grams)
1 Beqa (5.7 grams) - bekah (see Exodus 38:26).




1948-1963 Silver Franklin Half Dollars Total Weight is 12.5 grams. (The silver weight in the half dollar is 90% silver, so 12.5 grams - 1.25 grams non-silver = 11.25 grams of silver, or just about a shekel.)



Picture of the coin in the above artical. (Exodus 30:13)



Ezek 45:10 You shall have just balances, ...

:12 The shekel shall be twenty gerahs; twenty shekels, twenty-five shekels, and fifteen shekels shall be your mina.

100 SHEKELS OF GOLD PER MINA - The Shields

The following verses suggest a mina of gold was the equivalent of 100 shekels of gold. (Note, the word 'shekels' in 2 Chr 9:16 is not actually present in the original Hebrew.)

1 Kin 10:17 He also made three hundred shields of hammered gold; three mina of gold went into each shield. And the king put them in the House of the Forest of Lebanon.

2 Chr 9:16 He also made three hundred shields of hammered gold; three hundred shekels of gold went into each shield. The king put them in the House of the Forest of Lebanon.

100 SHEKELS OF SILVER PER MINA - Solomon's Vineyards

The following two references when cross referenced suggest 200 pieces of silver, presumably 200 bekah (the half shekel mentioned in Exod 38:26), equal one mina.

Song 8:11 Solomon had a vineyard at Baal Hamon; he leased the vineyard to keepers; everyone was to bring for its fruit a thousand pieces of silver.

:12 My own vineyard is before me. You, O Solomon may have a thousand, And those who keep its fruit two hundred.

Isa 7:23 It shall happen in that day, that wherever there could be a thousand vines worth a thousand shekels of silver, ... [In the Hebrew text the word 'shekels' is not actually present - the most likely measure indicated is 'mina'. ]

So Song 8:11-12 indicates 1,000 pieces of silver (bekah) were paid by each vinedresser, and that Solomon owned 1,000 vineyards, and that in each vineyard there were 200 vinedressers.

A total income of 200,000,000 bekah, ie 100,000,000 shekels.

And Isa 7:23 indicates that a 1,000 vineyards would be worth 1,000 mina each.

A total income of 1,000,000 mina.

Hence suggesting 100 shekels = 1 mina.







Weights and Measures
Bible Weights and Measurements
 
All values are approximate.
Many measurements vary by era and location.

Lengths
Weights
Liquid Measures
Dry Measures
Money
Time


Lengths
Finger 0.73 inches 1.85 centimeters Jeremiah 52.21 <Convert>
Handbreadth (4 fing.) 2.92 inches 7.4 centimeters Exodus 25:25 <Convert>
Span 9 inches 22.86 centimeters Exodus 28:16 <Convert>
Cubit 18 inches 45.72 centimeters Matthew 6:27 <Convert>
Long Cubit 20.4 inches 51.9 centimeters Ezekiel 40:5 <Convert>
Fathom 6 feet 1.829 meters Acts 27:28 <Convert>
Reed (6 cubits) 8.75 feet 2.73 meters Ezekiel 40:5 <Convert>
Furlong 1/8 mi., 660 feet 201.2 meters Revelation 14:20 <Convert>
Stadion 697 feet 185.4 meters Luke 24:13 <Convert>
Sabbath day’s journey 3/5 mile 0.9656 kilometers Acts 1:12 <Convert>
Day’s journey 20 miles 32.19 kilometers 1 Kings 19:4 <Convert>

 

Weights
Gerah 1/50 ounce 0.567 grams Ezekiel 45:12 <Convert>
Bekah (10 gerahs) 1/5 ounce 5.67 grams Genesis 24:22 <Convert>
Pim (2/3 shekel) 1/3 ounce 9.45 grams 1 Samuel 13.21 <Convert>
Shekel (2 bekahs) 2/5 ounce 11.34 grams Exodus 30:23 <Convert>
Mina (50 shekels) 1.25 pounds 0.567 kg. Ezra 2:69 <Convert>
Talent (60 minas) 75 pounds 34.02 kg. Ezra 8:26 <Convert>

 

Liquid Measures
Log 0.65 pints 0.31 liters Leviticus 14:10 <Convert>
Kab (4 logs) 2.6 pints 1.2 liters 2 Kings 6:25 <Convert>
Hin (12 logs) 0.98 gallon 3.7 liters Numbers 15:4 <Convert>
Bath (6 hins) 5.9 gallons 22 liters Isaiah 5:10 <Convert>
Homer (10 baths) 59 gallons 220 liters Ezekiel 45:11 <Convert>
Kor (10 baths) 59 gallons 220 liters Ezekiel 45:11 <Convert>
Metretes 10 gallons 37.85 liters John 2:6 <Convert>

 

Dry Measures
Kab (1/18 ephah) 2.6 pints 1.2 liters 2 Kings 6:25 <Convert>
Omer (1/10 ephah) 2.3 quarts 2.2 liters Exodus 16:36 <Convert>
Seah (1/3 ephah) 7.7 quarts 7.3 liters 2 Kings 7:1 <Convert>
Ephah (10 omers) 0.63 bushels (5.9 gal.) 22 liters Ruth 2:17 <Convert>
Lethech (5 ephaths) 3.16 bushels (29 gal.) 110 liters Hosea 3:2 <Convert>
Homer (10 ephaths) 6.33 bushels (59 gal.) 220 liters Leviticus 27:16 <Convert>
Kor (10 ephaths) 6.33 bushels (59 gal.) 220 liters Ezekiel 45:14 <Convert>

 

Money
Denarius Day’s wage   Matthew 20:2 <Est. Current Value>
Drachma Est. 0.035 oz. silver Est. 1 gram silver Luke 15:8 <Est. Current Value>
Didrachma (2 Drach.) Est. 0.07 oz. silver Est. 2 grams silver Matthew 17:24 <Est. Current Value>
Talent, silver Approx. 100 lb Approx. 45.4 kg Ezra 8:26 <Est. Current Value>
Talent, silver (Alternate) Approx. 50 lb Approx. 22.7 kg Ezra 8:26 <Est. Current Value>
Talent, gold Approx. 120 lb Approx. 54.4 kg 1 Kings 9:28 <Est. Current Value>
Talent, gold (Alternate) Approx. 60 lb Approx. 27.2 kg 1 Kings 9:28 <Est. Current Value>

 

Time
Sunrise 6 AM 06:00 Mark 16:2 <Convert>
First hour 7 AM 07:00   <Convert>
Second hour 8 AM 08:00   <Convert>
Third hour 9 AM 09:00 Matthew 20:3 <Convert>
Fourth hour 10 AM 10:00   <Convert>
Fifth hour 11 AM 11:00   <Convert>
Sixth hour Noon 12:00 Matthew 27:45 <Convert>
Seventh hour 1 PM 13:00 John 4:52 <Convert>
Eighth hour 2 PM 14:00   <Convert>
Ninth hour 3 PM 15:00 Acts 3:1 <Convert>
Tenth hour 4 PM 16:00 John 1:39 <Convert>
Eleventh hour 5 PM 17:00 Matthew 20:6-9 <Convert>
Sunset 6 PM 18:00 Luke 4:40 <Convert>
First watch of night 6 PM - 9 PM 18:00 - 21:00   <Convert>
Second watch 9 PM - midnight 21:00 - 00:00 Luke 12:38 <Convert>
Third watch Midnight - 3 AM 00:00 - 03:00 Luke 12:38 <Convert>
Fourth watch 3 AM - 6 AM 03:00 - 06:00 Matthew 14:25 <Convert>